When designers create solar power plant design, they estimate the potential energy generation for your rooftop solar system. Then they apply the same system design as they would do for ground-mounted systems. As a result, when the system starts generating energy, the actual generation falls short of the predictions. Leading to a dissatisfied and unhappy experience for the customer. In this blog, we will not only try to explain why your rooftop solar systems are generating less energy but will also tell you how a good solar design can ensure that the solar system on your roof performs equal to and in some cases even better than the ground-mounted systems. First, let’s try to understand the core reasons or factors that lead to lower power generation.

Factors That May Be Beyond Control

Roof Orientation — In-ground mount solar panel system you can optimize the inclination of modules (true South for the northern hemisphere) in order to capture the maximum amount of solar rays. Whereas, in rooftop installations, the azimuth angle of roof may not be ideal to capture maximum solar irradiance.

Availability Of Space — With space constraints in rooftop installations, solar system design compromises with the ideal pitch (distance between two rows of solar panels) which causes higher energy loss due to shading.

Temperature And Distance Between Solar Panels And Roof — As we all know that the solar photovoltaic modules have a negative temperature coefficient. In simple terms, the output of the solar system decreases with an increase in the ambient temperature around solar Plant. If the solar panel is very close to roof, there is less downward air-flow to cool down the solar cells. Therefore the ambient temperature around the solar panels tends to increase which leads to a loss in a generation. Ground-mounted systems have a much better ground clearance between the solar panel and ground on which it is mounted. Whereas rooftop systems sometimes are installed very close to the surface of the roof and therefore, the generation from rooftop solar systems is lowered further. However, an effective solar system design can help in overcoming the issue.

Maintenance/ System Oversight/ etc. – Large ground-mounted solar power plants normally have better access to maintenance activities due to their large size and available space. However, due to smaller system sizes like in the case of rooftops, it is not possible to keep full-time on-site engineers; reasons can be budgetary or any other. However, a robust and remote plant monitoring in place can effectively improve the situation. As well as having a firm O&M (operation & maintenance) contract with the solar system installer.

Factors that can be controlled

Design & Engineering– A widely ignored factor by most of solar system installers. A solar system design is a must in order to get the best possible performance from rooftop solar systems and a majority of the solar system installers lack in this area. A poor and inadequate design leads to a weighty loss of generation and therefore gives a negative impact on your investment.  

solar rooftop design
Solar Rooftop Design Sample

How to ensure optimum solar system design and engineering?

Site assessment — Site assessment is a very critical and essential point for any solar installation. Whether it is a rooftop, ground-mounted, or any other solar system. Ground-mounted systems normally have a free horizon and almost no nearby shading objects. Whereas rooftops closely encounter near and far shading objects like chimneys, overhead water tanks, air handling units, trees, buildings, etc. In order to avoid the impact of the shadow cast by the objects, detailed shading analysis and reports are required to find out the best possible location on the roof to install your solar plant.

The solar design & engineering team does the structure design accordingly.  A shade on 5% of a single module of solar panel may lead to 75–80% loss of generation in solar string. Heaven Designs takes a lot of pride in their detailed site assessment and reports.
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Solar Plant Layout — The layout and placement of solar structure design on your roof are extremely important for optimum performance as the solar radiation. A proper layout of solar design can also help in reducing the cost of your solar system. It is advisable to electrically connect those modules in the same solar string. One can segregate the modules on the basis of their current ratings. And try to keep modules within a narrow current range in one string. You can also put the lesser current rating strings in lower solar access areas. Whereas, in the higher solar access areas relatively higher current rated strings can be placed . In this way, one can optimize the solar system output within the given rooftop circumstances.

solar plant layout
Plant Layout

Moreover, to reduce the effect of the shadow, Designers consider the number of MPPT of the inverter and do the string distribution accordingly. MPPT functionality also helps when a roof has multiple azimuths.

Module temperature is a big concern for rooftop systems, so one should try to elevate the structure from the roof surface to make a passage for proper air circulation to reduce module temperature and therefore get better energy generation.

Other factors that can make difference

Selection of Equipment– If we select the right equipment considering the site conditions and local weather, generation loss can be effectively reduced. Solar modules backed up with a better temperature coefficient can reduce your temperature loss. As well as the use of string inverter with multi MPPT can quench mismatch and shading losses. Use of the appropriate size of cable can increase the resistance capacity. The solar engineering consultants can help in mounting solar panels through guidance for optimum utilization of space, techniques, and equipment.

Execution– If you take care of a few small but non-negligible things during the installation of your solar system, you can improve the performance.

  • Segregate modules on the basis of present rating and try to match modules with similar current rating in one string. This would be helpful in order to reduce your module mismatch losses.
  • Keep proper air circulation cycle in order to control the module cell temperature.

  • Connect the early shadowing strings on separate Maximum Power Point Tracking and the strings shadowing later on a separate one.
  • Use adequate material and size of cable to make proper electrical connections. For crimping proper crimping tools must be used.

Operation & Maintenance (O&M) — Though solar plants generally do not require much O&M, but a good preventive schedule backed with a detailed plant performance data by Heaven Designs can help improve the energy generation significantly. For an effective operation of solar panels, effective and detailed solar pv design is required. Which fulfils all the blue print criteria of a successful installation.

-Single Line Diagram
-ACDB/ DCDB / Solar LT Panel Design
-General arrangement layout
-DC / AC Cable Layout
-Earthing/ Lightning Arrester layout
-AC Cable Sizing and Loss calculations
-PV Layout
-CEI approval drawings set
-And Much More…


Coming towards the conclusion we can say that, though ground-mounted solar systems carry certain benefits in respect of ground clearance, shadow hindrances, maintenance, and operations, a rooftop solar system can also be highly productive through a detailed solar design.  A full-fledged solar system design is a roadmap to efficient generation. A well-defined process followed by cooperation with the EPC benefits all in the process of solar system installation.

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